Malingaliro aboma pakugwiritsa ntchito mpweya ndi chikonga ambiri amasiyanasiyana kwambiri. Ku United Kingdom, vaping amalimbikitsidwa ndi mabungwe azaumoyo aboma. Chifukwa kusuta kumabweretsa mavuto ku National Health Service ku UK, dzikolo limapulumutsa ndalama ngati osutawo asinthana ndi ndudu za e-fodya m'malo mwake.

Maiko ena ambiri amalolanso msika wokhazikika, koma alibe chidwi pakuvomereza kwawo. Ku US, a FDA ali ndi ulamuliro pazinthu zopangidwa ndi nthunzi, koma adakhala zaka zisanu ndi zitatu zapitazi akuyesera kupanga njira yoyendetsera ntchito. Canada idatsata mtundu waku UK, koma monga ku America, zigawo zake zili ndi ufulu wopanga malamulo awo omwe nthawi zina amatsutsana ndi zolinga za boma.

Pali mayiko opitilira 40 omwe ali ndi mtundu wina woletsa kutuluka kwa mpweya - kaya kugwiritsa ntchito, kugulitsa kapena kulowetsa, kapena kuphatikiza. Ena ali ndi ziletso zonse zomwe zimapangitsa kuti kutuluka m'malamulo kukhale kosaloledwa, kuphatikiza kuletsa kugulitsa ndi kukhala nazo. Kuletsa kuli ponseponse ku Asia, Middle East, ndi South America, ngakhale choletsa chotchuka kwambiri cha chikonga ndi cha Australia. Mayiko ena akusokoneza. Mwachitsanzo, kuphulika ku Japan ndikololedwa ndipo zogulitsa zimagulitsidwa, kupatula e-madzi okhala ndi nikotini, zomwe ndizosaloledwa. Koma zopsereza zosafukiza ngati IQOS ndizovomerezeka komanso zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri.

Ndizovuta kutsatira kusintha konse kwamalamulo omwe akutuluka. Zomwe tayesera pano ndikubwerera kumayiko omwe aletsa kapena oletsa kwambiri kutulutsa kapena nthunzi. Pali mafotokozedwe achidule. Izi sizitanthauza kuti ndiupangiri woyenda kapena maupangiri okhudza kuwuluka ndi kuwuluka. Ngati mukuyendera dziko lomwe simukudziwa muyenera kufunsa ndi gwero laposachedwa komanso lodalirika ngati kazembe wa dziko lanu, kapena ofesi yoyendera dziko lomwe mukuyendera.

 

Nchifukwa chiyani mayiko amaletsa kutuluka kwa madzi?

World Health Organisation (WHO) ndi oyang'anira fodya ake a Framework Convention on Fodya Control (FCTC) - mgwirizano wapadziko lonse womwe udasainidwa ndi mayiko opitilira 180 - alimbikitsa zoletsa ndi kuletsa ndudu za e-e kuyambira pomwe zoyambilira zidayamba kubwera ku Europe komanso Mphepete mwa nyanja ku US mu 2007. WHO ndiwothandiza kwambiri (komanso nthawi zambiri wamphamvu kwambiri) pamalamulo azaumoyo ndi kusuta fodya m'maiko ambiri - makamaka m'maiko osauka, komwe WHO imapereka mapulogalamu omwe amalembetsa akatswiri ambiri azaumoyo.

FCTC iyokha imayendetsedwa ndi alangizi ochokera kumabungwe achinsinsi aku America odana ndi kusuta monga Campaign for Fodya-Free Kids - ngakhale US siili nawo mgwirizanowu. Chifukwa maguluwa adalimbana ndi dzino ndi misomali polimbana ndi kuphulika kwa mafuta ndi zinthu zina zochepetsa kuchepetsa fodya, maudindo awo atengedwa ndi FCTC, ndizotsatira zoyipa kwa osuta m'maiko ambiri. FCTC yalangiza mamembala ake (mayiko ambiri) kuti aletse kapena kuwongolera mosamala ndudu za e-fodya, ngakhale chikalatacho chimapereka chikalata chotsimikiza kuchepetsa kuwonongeka ngati njira yabwino yoyendetsera fodya.

Maiko ambiri amadalira malonda a fodya, makamaka malonda a ndudu, kuti apeze msonkho. Nthawi zina, akuluakulu aboma amakhala achilungamo pazomwe asankha kuletsa kapena kuletsa zopumira kuti zisunge ndalama za fodya. Nthawi zambiri maboma amasankha kuphatikiza mafunde muzogulitsa zawo za fodya, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zosavuta kupereka misonkho yolipirira kwa ogula. Mwachitsanzo, dziko la Indonesia litapereka msonkho wa 57 peresenti pa ndudu za fodya, mkulu wina wogwira ntchito zachuma anafotokoza kuti cholinga cha msonkhowo “chinali kuchepetsa kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa nthunzi.”

Kuphulika kwapagulu m'maiko ambiri sikungokhala ngati kusuta ndudu, monga ku United States. Ngati mukuganiza ngati mutha kupukutira pagulu, mutha kuwona wina yemwe amasuta kapena wosuta ndikufunsa (kapena manja) kuti malamulowo ndi ati. Mukakayikira, osangochita. Pomwe kuphulika ndikosaloledwa, ndibwino kuti muonetsetse kuti malamulo sadzakakamizidwa musanachite ziwombankhanga.

 

Kodi zopanga nthunzi ndizoletsedwa kapena zoletsedwa kuti?

Mndandanda wathu ndiwambiri, koma mwina sichotsimikizika. Malamulo amasintha pafupipafupi, ndipo ngakhale kulumikizana pakati pa mabungwe olimbikitsa anthu kusintha kukukulira, kulibe chosungira chapadera chazidziwitso zamalamulo oyenda padziko lonse lapansi.Mndandanda wathu umachokera kuzinthu zingapo: Global State of Fodya Reduction Reduction yochokera ku Britain yoletsa kuchepetsa ngozi yolimbikitsa bungwe la Knowledge-Action-Change, Campaign for Fodya-Free Kids 'Tobacco Control Laws webusayiti, ndi tsamba la Global Tobacco Control lomwe a Johns adachita Ofufuza ku Hopkins University. Udindo wa ma countrie enas adatsimikiziridwa ndi kafukufuku woyambirira.

Ena mwa mayikowa amaletsa kugwiritsa ntchito ndi kugulitsa, ambiri amangoletsa kugulitsa, ndipo ena amaletsa chikonga kapena zinthu zokhala ndi chikonga. M'mayiko ambiri, malamulo amanyalanyazidwa. Kwa ena, amakakamizidwa. Apanso, fufuzani ndi gwero lodalirika musanapite kudziko lililonse ndi zida zamafuta ndi e-madzi. Ngati dziko silinatchulidwe, kutuluka kwamtunduwu kumaloledwa ndikuwongoleredwa, kapena palibe lamulo linalake lolamulira e-ndudu (monga momwe ziliri pano).

Timalandila zambiri zatsopano. Ngati mukudziwa za lamulo lomwe lasintha, kapena malamulo atsopano omwe akukhudza mndandanda wathu, chonde perekani ndemanga ndipo tikusinthanso.

 

Amereka

Antigua ndi Barbuda
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Argentina
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Brazil
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Chile
Kugulitsa kosaloledwa, kupatula mankhwala ovomerezeka

Colombia
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Mexico
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kuitanitsa kapena kugulitsa. Mu February 2020, Purezidenti waku Mexico adapereka lamulo loletsa kulowetsedwa kwa zinthu zonse zomwe zikuphulika, kuphatikiza zero-chikonga. Komabe, pali gulu lotukuka mdzikolo, komanso utsogoleri wolimbikitsa ndi gulu la ogula Pro-Vapeo Mexico. Sizikudziwika ngati boma lingayesere kulanda zinthu zomwe alendo amabwera kudziko

Nicaragua
Kukhulupirira kusaloledwa kugwiritsa ntchito, kusaloledwa kugulitsa chikonga

Panama
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Suriname
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

United States
Lamulo logwiritsidwa ntchito, lovomerezeka mwalamulo-koma kugulitsa zinthu zopangidwa pambuyo pa Ogasiti 8, 2016 ndikoletsedwa popanda chilolezo chotsatsa kuchokera ku FDA. Pakadali pano palibe kampani yomwe yapempha kuti igulitsidwe. Pa Seputembala 9, 2020, zinthu zisanachitike 2016 zomwe sizinaperekedwe kuti zivomerezedwe azitsatiranso malamulo

Uruguay
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Venezuela
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, amakhulupirira kuti ndizosaloledwa kugulitsa, kupatula mankhwala ovomerezeka

 

Africa

Ethiopia
Kukhulupirira kovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, kugulitsa mosaloledwa - koma udindo sadziwika

Gambia
Kukhulupirira kusaloledwa kugwiritsa ntchito, kugulitsa kosaloledwa

Mauritius
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, amakhulupirira kuti ndizosaloledwa kugulitsa

Seychelles
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, kusaloledwa kugulitsa - komabe, dzikolo lidalengeza mu 2019 cholinga chololeza ndikukhazikitsa ndudu za e-e

Uganda
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Asia

Bangladesh
Bangladesh pakadali pano ilibe malamulo kapena malangizo okhudzana ndi vaping. Komabe, mu Disembala 2019 wogwira ntchito yazaumoyo adauza Reuters kuti boma "likugwira ntchito mwakhama kuti liletse kupanga, kulowetsa ndi kugulitsa fodya wa e-fodya komanso ma Tobaccos onse omwe akupha kuti ateteze ngozi zaumoyo."

Bhutan
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Brunei
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa zinthu zambiri

Cambodia
Kuletsedwa: kugwiritsa ntchito kosaloledwa, kosaloledwa kugulitsa

East Timor
Amakhulupirira kuti aletsedwa

India
Mu Seputembala 2019, boma lapakati ku India linaletsa kugulitsa zinthu zomwe zikuphulika. Boma, podziwa bwino kuti amwenye 100 miliyoni amasuta komanso kuti fodya amapha pafupifupi anthu miliyoni miliyoni pachaka, sanachitepo kanthu kuti achepetse kusuta. Osati mwangozi, boma la India lili ndi kampani 30% ya kampani yayikulu kwambiri ya fodya mdzikolo

Japan
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zovomerezeka kugulitsa zida, zosaloledwa kugulitsa madzi okhala ndi chikonga (ngakhale anthu atha kutumiza zinthu zomwe zili ndi chikonga ndi zoletsa zina). Zotulutsa fodya zotentha (HTPS) monga IQOS ndizovomerezeka

North Korea
Kuletsedwa

Malaysia
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa zinthu zokhala ndi nikotini. Ngakhale kugulitsa kogulitsa mankhwala okhala ndi chikonga ndiloletsedwa, Malaysia ili ndi msika wabwino kwambiri. Akuluakulu a boma nthawi zina amakhala akulanda ogulitsa komanso kulanda katundu wawo. Kugulitsa kwa zinthu zonse zomwe zikuphulika (ngakhale popanda chikonga) zaletsedwa m'maboma a Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Penang ndi Terengganu

Myanmar
Amakhulupirira kuti aletsedwa, kutengera nkhani ya Ogasiti 2020

Nepal
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito (zoletsedwa pagulu), kugulitsa kosaloledwa

Singapore
Kuletsedwa: kugwiritsa ntchito kosaloledwa, kosaloledwa kugulitsa. Pofika chaka chatha, kukhala ndi mlandu ulinso mlandu, ndipo amalipiritsa chindapusa chofika $ 1,500 (US)

Anagarika Dharmapala Mawatha, Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Thailand
Kukhulupirira kovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, kusaloledwa kugulitsa. Thailand idadziwika kuti ikukhazikitsa lamulo loletsa kugula ndi kugulitsa zinthu zophulika ndi zochitika zodziwika bwino m'zaka zaposachedwa, kuphatikizapo kusunga alendo omwe akuyamba "kulowetsa". Boma akuti lalingaliranso malamulo ake okhwima a e-cigaret

Turkmenistan
Kukhulupirira kovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, kusaloledwa kugulitsa

Nkhukundembo
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kuitanitsa kapena kugulitsa. Kugulitsa ndi kulowetsa zinthu zophulika kunja ndikosaloledwa ku Turkey, ndipo dzikolo litatsimikiziranso kuletsa kwawo mu 2017, bungwe la WHO lidatulutsa atolankhani osangalala ndi chigamulochi. Koma malamulowa akutsutsana, ndipo pali msika wamphepo komanso gulu lomwe likuphulika ku Turkey

Australia

Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa chikonga. Ku Australia, kukhala kapena kugulitsa chikonga ndizosaloledwa popanda mankhwala akuchipatala, koma pokhapokha m'chigawo chimodzi (Western Australia) zida zovulaza ndizovomerezeka kugulitsa. Pachifukwachi pali msika wabwino womwe ukuwonjezeka ngakhale kuli lamulo. Chilango chokhala nacho chimasiyana mdziko limodzi, koma chimakhala chovuta kwambiri

Europe

Mzinda wa Vatican
Amakhulupirira kuti aletsedwa

Middle East

Igupto
Kugwiritsa ntchito malamulo, kugulitsa mosaloledwa - ngakhale dzikolo likuwoneka kuti lili pafupi kukhazikitsa zinthu zomwe zikuphulika

Iran
Kukhulupirira kovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, kusaloledwa kugulitsa

Kuwait
Kukhulupirira kovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, kusaloledwa kugulitsa

Lebanon
Zovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, zoletsedwa kugulitsa

Omani
Kukhulupirira kovomerezeka kugwiritsa ntchito, kusaloledwa kugulitsa

Qatar
Kuletsedwa: kugwiritsa ntchito kosaloledwa, kosaloledwa kugulitsa

 

Samalani ndikufufuza!

Apanso, ngati mupita kudziko lomwe simukudziwa, chonde funsani anthu ochokera mdzikolo za malamulo ndi zomwe angavomereze akuluakulu. Ngati mukupita ku umodzi mwamayiko omwe kukhala ndi mafunde ndizosaloledwa - makamaka m'maiko aku Middle East - ganizirani kawiri momwe mwatsimikiza mtima kupepesa, chifukwa mutha kukumana ndi zovuta. Ambiri padziko lapansi amalandila ma vapers masiku ano, koma kukonzekera ndi kafukufuku wina kumatha kusungitsa ulendo wanu wosangalatsa kuti usasanduke zoopsa.